Similarity and dissimilarity: correlation, distance, 34 association
coefficients, and 11 genetic distance coefficients.
Clustering: UPGMA and other hierarchical SAHN methods (allows for
ties). Neighbor-joining method (including the new unweighted
version). Several types of consensus trees.
● Graph theoretic methods: minimum-length spanning trees. Graphs (unrooted
trees) from the neighbor-joining method.
Ordination: principal components & principal coordinates analysis,
correspondence analysis, metric & non-metric multidimensional
scaling analysis, singular-value decompositions, projections onto
axes and Burnaby's method. Canonical variates analysis. Programs for
multiple factor analysis, common principal components analysis,
partial least-squares, multiple correlation, and canonical
correlations are also included.
● Interactive graphics: phenograms, phylogenetic trees, 2D scatter
plots , comparison of dis/similarity matrices, Fourier plots of
outlines, Procrustes plots, and 3-D perspective plots.
● Multivariate tests: canonical variates analysis, tests for
homogeneity of covariance matrices, tests for number of dimensions,
generalized multivariate multiple regression analysis. There are
also provisions for bootstrap, jackknife, and simulation
● Geometric morphometrics: includes specialized modules for
Procrustes analysis to superimpose landmark configurations, plotting
the results of a Procrustes analysis, Fourier analysis (including 2D
and 3D elliptic) of outline shapes, plotting outlines and Fourier
coefficients, and computation of 2D and 3D partial warp scores and
estimates of the uniform component.
● Other: includes comparison of matrices by cophenetic correlation,
Mantel test, 3-way Mantel test, data standardization, and matrix
transformations (simple functions, deletion, and now matrix
transpose). Matrices can be split or combined.